TABLE 3. Mechanisms for the Spread of Developmental Idealism
Transnational Actors
 Christian missionaries
 United Nations
 Governments
 Nongovernmental organizations
 Western businesses
 Writings of developmental scholars
Programs, Movements, and Institutions
 Mass education
 Mass media
 Family planning programs
 Foreign aid programs
 Social movements (e.g., communism, civil rights, democracy, women's equality)
Transnational Flows and Interactions
 European and American exploration
 Western colonization
 International conflicts
 Tourism
  • Note: The table is meant to provide an illustrative rather than exhaustive list of the mechanisms for the spread of DI.