Table 4 Mixed-effects Linear Regression of Governance Indicators on Problems Encountered with Local Clinics (combined) in 34 African Countries Surveyed by Afrobarometer
Problems Encountered with Local Clinicsa
Variables(1)(2)(3)(4)
Rule of law−0.117***−0.114***−0.114***−0.114***
(0.014)(0.014)(0.014)(0.014)
Control of corruption−0.067***−0.065***−0.065***−0.064***
(0.010)(0.010)(0.010)(0.010)
Satisfaction with democracy−0.082***−0.079***−0.079***−0.079***
(0.020)(0.020)(0.020)(0.020)
Government effectiveness−0.112***−0.115***−0.115***−0.114***
(0.015)(0.015)(0.015)(0.015)
Age of respondents−0.001−0.001−0.001
(0.001)(0.001)(0.001)
Education0.0060.0060.006
(0.007)(0.007)(0.007)
Employment−0.024−0.024−0.024
(0.025)(0.025)(0.025)
Urban residence0.070*0.069*0.069*
(0.032)(0.032)(0.032)
Log GDP pc−0.0300.0120.233***
(0.060)(0.058)(0.068)
Log ODA pc0.0140.0580.046
(0.065)(0.063)(0.052)
FDI0.0010.000−0.001
(0.003)(0.003)(0.002)
Tax revenue0.001−0.0010.003
(0.009)(0.009)(0.008)
Health expenditure−0.067−0.073−0.089
(0.058)(0.058)(0.049)
Democratization−0.0150.039**0.218***
(0.011)(0.014)(0.040)
Democratization squared−0.003***
(0.001)
Democratization*GDP pc−0.028***
(0.005)
Random intercepts
PSUs (in SD)0.320***0.317***0.317***0.317***
(0.020)(0.020)(0.020)(0.020)
Countries (in SD)0.333***0.302***0.278***0.249***
(0.038)(0.037)(0.043)(0.041)
Observations38,39838,39838,39838,398

Notes: Standard errors are in parentheses.

  • a Six variables—absent doctors, lack of medicine, lack of attention, service too expensive, long waiting time, and dirty facilities—are combined using EFA to obtain factor scores on this variable.

  • *** p < 0.001

  • ** p < 0.01

  • * p < 0.05.