Table 3 Mixed-effects Linear Regression of Infrastructure Provisioning on Individuals' Health Service Utilization in 34 African Countries Surveyed by Afrobarometer
Health Service Utilizationa
Variables(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Health clinic0.095***0.089***0.084***0.084***0.084***
(0.022)(0.021)(0.020)(0.020)(0.020)
Electricity grid0.094*0.090*0.0520.0520.053
(0.037)(0.037)(0.038)(0.038)(0.038)
Piped water0.088**0.074*0.062*0.062*0.062*
(0.030)(0.031)(0.029)(0.029)(0.028)
Sewage0.0410.0500.0190.0200.020
(0.038)(0.036)(0.034)(0.034)(0.034)
Paved road0.0370.043*0.0280.0280.027
(0.024)(0.021)(0.021)(0.021)(0.021)
Rule of law0.074***0.080***0.080***0.080***
(0.009)(0.010)(0.010)(0.010)
Control of corruption0.036***0.042***0.042***0.042***
(0.006)(0.006)(0.006)(0.006)
Satisfaction with democracy0.090***0.092***0.093***0.092***
(0.017)(0.016)(0.016)(0.016)
Government effectiveness0.147***0.142***0.142***0.142***
(0.013)(0.013)(0.013)(0.013)
Age of respondents−0.001−0.001−0.001
(0.000)(0.000)(0.000)
Education0.031***0.031***0.031***
(0.005)(0.005)(0.005)
Employment0.052**0.052**0.052**
(0.019)(0.019)(0.019)
Urban residence0.0290.0290.029
(0.028)(0.028)(0.028)
Log GDP pc0.133*0.080−0.161**
(0.064)(0.056)(0.050)
Log ODA pc−0.005−0.060−0.040
(0.063)(0.061)(0.046)
FDI−0.005−0.004−0.003
(0.003)(0.003)(0.002)
Tax revenue−0.007−0.005−0.010
(0.008)(0.007)(0.006)
Health expenditure0.128**0.136**0.154***
(0.046)(0.045)(0.034)
Democratization0.009−0.059***−0.250***
(0.012)(0.013)(0.034)
Democratization squared0.003***
(0.001)
Democratization*GDP pc0.031***
(0.004)
Random intercepts
PSUs (in SD)0.305***0.289***0.288***0.288***0.288***
(0.016)(0.015)(0.015)(0.015)(0.015)
Countries (in SD)0.407***0.353***0.281***0.237***0.205***
(0.050)(0.040)(0.031)(0.031)(0.027)
Observations46,88446,88446,88446,88446,884

Notes: Standard errors are in parentheses.

  • a Three variables—gone without medicines, received free visits or medicines, and had difficulty receiving medical treatment—are combined using EFA to obtain factor scores on this variable.

  • *** p < 0.001

  • ** p < 0.01

  • * p < 0.05.