Table 5 Mixed-effects Linear Regression of Governance Indicators on Various Problems Encountered with Health Clinics in 34 African Countries Surveyed by Afrobarometer
VariablesAbsent DoctorsLack of MedicinesLack of AttentionService ExpensiveWaiting Time LongDirty Facilities
Rule of law−0.046***−0.029***−0.048***−0.020**−0.033***−0.047***
(0.005)(0.005)(0.005)(0.006)(0.005)(0.006)
Control of corruption−0.021***−0.017***−0.030***−0.012*−0.019***−0.020***
(0.005)(0.004)(0.004)(0.005)(0.004)(0.005)
Satisfaction with demo.−0.017−0.022**−0.039***−0.034***−0.027**−0.023*
(0.010)(0.008)(0.009)(0.010)(0.009)(0.009)
Gov. effectiveness−0.038***−0.045***−0.035***−0.032***−0.042***−0.037***
(0.006)(0.006)(0.006)(0.006)(0.005)(0.006)
Age of respondents−0.001**0.001***−0.001**0.000−0.001**−0.000
(0.000)(0.000)(0.000)(0.000)(0.000)(0.000)
Education0.006*−0.0000.002−0.011***0.0040.008*
(0.003)(0.003)(0.003)(0.003)(0.002)(0.003)
Employment0.001−0.005−0.008−0.010−0.019*−0.001
(0.010)(0.010)(0.011)(0.010)(0.009)(0.012)
Urban residence0.007−0.0150.054***0.0060.050***0.041***
(0.012)(0.013)(0.013)(0.011)(0.014)(0.010)
Log GDP pc0.088***0.085*0.103***−0.0010.085**0.075*
(0.026)(0.039)(0.028)(0.026)(0.027)(0.034)
Log ODA pc0.0130.0370.0150.0310.035−0.028
(0.018)(0.025)(0.017)(0.018)(0.018)(0.024)
FDI0.001−0.0010.000−0.003*−0.0010.000
(0.001)(0.001)(0.001)(0.002)(0.001)(0.001)
Tax revenue0.0050.0020.001−0.002−0.0020.001
(0.003)(0.003)(0.003)(0.003)(0.003)(0.004)
Health expenditure−0.051**−0.028−0.017−0.051*0.013−0.050*
(0.019)(0.021)(0.022)(0.021)(0.017)(0.020)
Democratization0.064***0.112***0.082***0.085***0.041*0.053*
(0.016)(0.024)(0.016)(0.018)(0.016)(0.022)
Democratization *GDP−0.009***−0.014***−0.010***−0.010***−0.006**−0.007*
(0.002)(0.003)(0.002)(0.002)(0.002)(0.003)
Random intercepts:
PSUs (in SD)0.135***0.128***0.134***0.117***0.149***0.129***
(0.008)(0.008)(0.008)(0.009)(0.010)(0.007)
Countries (in SD)0.089***0.115***0.096***0.103***0.099***0.111***
(0.014)(0.014)(0.014)(0.012)(0.017)(0.013)
Observations40,07740,92140,72441,02440,92440,106

Notes: Standard errors are in parentheses.