Table 2 Descriptive Statistics for 34 African Countries Surveyed by Afrobarometer
VariablesObs.MeanSD
Individual-level Dependent Variables:
Health service utilization (principal factor scores)486960.0001.000
Problems encountered with local clinic (combined scores)399750.0001.000
Problems encountered with local clinic: absent doctors417390.3720.483
Problems encountered with local clinic: lack of medicines491660.4310.495
Problems encountered with local clinic: lack of attention424430.4150.493
Problems encountered with local clinic: service expensive427520.3340.472
Problems encountered with local clinic: long waiting time426540.6230.485
Problems encountered with local clinic: dirty facilities417970.3170.465
PSU-level Infrastructure Provisioning:
Health clinic present in the PSU (1 = yes)512860.6020.489
Electricity grid present in the PSU (1 = yes)515870.6270.483
Piped water present in the PSU (1 = yes)514770.5570.497
Sewage system present in the PSU (1 = yes)511660.2840.451
Paved road present in the PSU (1 = yes)515870.4640.499
Afrobarometer Governance Indicators:
Rule of law (principal factor scores)513590.0001.000
Control of corruption (principal factor scores)514140.0001.000
Satisfaction with democratic rule (1 = satisfied)515750.4930.500
Government effectiveness (principal factor scores)514140.0001.000
Individual-level Controls:
Age of respondents (in years)5114337.19214.594
Levels of education (no formal education to postgraduate)514613.2722.133
Employment status (1 = employed)513780.3320.471
Area of residence (1 = urban)515870.3860.487
Country-level Controls:
GDP per capita (in 2011 constant int. dollars, PPP)515874191.8834232.641
Net ODA per capita (in current US$)5158771.81174.239
Foreign direct investment (net inflows as % of GDP)515877.45013.286
Tax revenue (as % of GDP)5158717.3229.656
Public health expenditure (as % of GDP)515873.3651.631
Democratization (Vanhanen index)5158710.0825.538

Notes: Obs. = observation; SD = standard deviation.